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Working principle and technical points of water and fertilizer integration

Source: Time:2018-08-22 15:47:15 frequency:

Water and fertilizer integration is a comprehensive management measure for modern agricultural production. It is also known as water and fertilizer coupling, pipeline fertilization, fertilizer application, water fertilization, etc. It is a technology that can simultaneously inform plant water supply and fertilizer use. That is, by means of the pressure system, the soluble fertilizer is blended according to the type of crop and the fertilizer required for growth, and the irrigation water is supplied to the plant through the controllable pipeline system to supply fertilizer.
Compared with traditional irrigation and fertilization measures, water and fertilizer integration technology has significant advantages: water saving, fertilizer saving, time saving, reducing agricultural costs; reducing the incidence of pests and diseases, ensuring crop quality and yield; reducing environmental pollution; improving soil Microenvironment, improve the efficiency of the use of trace elements.

A complete integrated water and fertilizer irrigation system usually includes:
1. Water source: Rivers, lakes, reservoirs, ditches, and wells can be used as irrigation water sources.
2. The first hub: pumps, filtration equipment, power machines, fertilizer injection equipment, controllers, etc.
3. Water pipe network: three pipes of trunk pipe, branch pipe and capillary pipe; where the trunk pipe is connected to the water source, the capillary pipe is installed or connected to the emitter
4. Emitter: Whose equipment is directly in the field, its role is to reduce the pressure, the water flow in the pipeline into a water droplet, trickle or spray-like state into the soil near the crop roots.

Sprinkler irrigation technology can usually save more than 60% of water, and the water saving rate of micro-irrigation technology can reach 80-85%. Compared with sprinkler irrigation, the micro-irrigation technology has low working pressure, requires less water, and consumes less energy, which correspondingly reduces the energy consumption of pumping. However, the micro-irrigation equipment has the following problems in the actual promotion: first, the initial investment is high; secondly, in order to achieve a small amount of continuous irrigation purposes, the micro-irrigation system's emitter outlet is usually small, prone to blockage, and the piping system Filters and water quality requirements are high and require regular cleaning and maintenance.

The fertilization modes supported by the water and fertilizer integration technology can be divided into the following five types according to their working principles and methods.
1. Differential pressure fertilization, also known as bypass fertilization tank method:
The working principle is to set a side pipe and a control valve somewhere on the sleeping pipe, so that a part of the water flows into the fertilizing tank, enters the fertilizer flow tank to dissolve the fertilizer in the tank, and then returns to the input pipe system to bring the fertilizer to the crop root system.
The utility model has the advantages of simple operation, direct use of solid fertilizer, no need to pre-mix fertilizer mother liquor, no external energy consumption, but can not accurately control the concentration and rate of fertilization, and the concentration of the fertilizer solution gradually decreases with the fertilization time.
2. Gravity self-pressing fertilization method:
The working principle is to establish a fertilizer pool above the pool level in the irrigation reservoir, and the bottom of the tank is installed with the fertilizer liquid flowing out of the pipeline, and uses the gravity of the fertilizer liquid to flow into the irrigation reservoir.
The method is suitable for applications where gravity irrigation is applied, such as hilly orchards with natural topographical differences. The advantage is that the concentration and speed of fertilization can be controlled, the fertilizer pool is low in cost, and no external energy consumption is needed; the disadvantage is that it is difficult to clean the remaining fertilizer in the reservoir, and it is easy to breed algae, moss and other plants after re-storing, and there is a blockage of the pipeline. Hidden dangers.
3. Inhalation type fertilizer, also known as pumping fertilization method:
The principle is to generate a negative pressure through a centrifugal pump, and the soluble fertilizer rare earth irrigation system is suitable for fertilization in any area.
The utility model has the advantages that the operation is simple, the installation is easy, the centrifugal pump is shared with the irrigation system, no external power is needed, and the solid soluble fertilizer and the quantitative fertilization are suitable, and the proportional fertilization can be realized when the water pressure is constant; the disadvantage is that the fertilizer liquid concentration is unstable. Formulated fertilization and automated control are difficult.
4. Injectable fertilization, also known as pump injection or active fertilizer:
The principle is to use the fertilizer pump to inject the fertilizer mother liquor into the irrigation system. The fertilizer pump can be driven by electricity or water. The main inlet can be at any position of the water pipeline, but the pressure of the water flow in the heavy rain pipeline is required to inject the fertilizer.
The advantage is that the fertilizer filling speed is adjustable, and it is suitable for various fertilizer formulas, and can realize proportional fertilization and quantitative fertilization. The operation needs to meet the minimum system pressure, the correct design and auxiliary accessories are required, the daily maintenance must be carried out, and the initial input cost is high.
5. Venturi Fertilizer:
The principle is to use a venturi device to create a vacuum suction in the pipe to draw the fertilizer solution from the fertilizer tank to the irrigation system.
The utility model has the advantages that the proportional fertilization can be achieved and the constant nutrient concentration is maintained, the method does not need external energy consumption, and has the advantages of large range of fertilizer absorption, simple installation and convenient movement, and is widely used in irrigation and fertilization.

Fertilizer and water integration technology requirements for fertilizer

1. According to the law of crop fertilizer requirement, different crops have different preferences and needs for nutrients in different growth stages. For example, when the fruit trees are young, they need less fertilizer and are very sensitive to fertilizer. In the fruiting period, they need to be based on yield and tree. The canteen adjusts the proportion of fertilizers, and pays attention to the use of trace elements. During the renewal and aging periods, it is necessary to apply nitrogen fertilizer to sing the fruit.
2. Based on the field soil fertility level and target yield, based on understanding the crop fertilizer requirements, based on the soil fertility level and target yield, accurately calculate the amount of exogenous fertilizer that needs to be added during crop growth.
3. Analyze the composition and pH of the irrigation water to understand the chemical interaction between the fertilizers. Some fertilizers affect the pH of the water. When the pH of the irrigation water increases, the carbonate ions and calcium and magnesium ions in the water are prone to sedimentation, which causes the emitter to become clogged. Ionic components in the irrigation water source also have an effect on it. In order to prevent pipeline blockage, it is also necessary to consider the solubility and impurity content of the fertilizer and whether a precipitation reaction will occur between different fertilizers.

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